The Eternal Formation of Black Holes

I am working on a new paper about black holes, here is a teaser of what is coming soon.

Black Holes are perhaps the perfect example of extreme environments in the universe, with massive gravity in the form of profound spacetime curvature and seemingly impossible physics at their singularity. In modern astrophysics and cosmology, it is understood that these objects are ubiquitous throughout the cosmos yet many of their properties are paradoxical and elusive. These formerly named ‘frozen stars,’ are the ultimate result of Einstein’s general theory of relativity, when a hugely massive object’s gravitational collapse overcomes any radiation pressure or degeneracy. There is much that is understood but also quite a bit that is not, about these extreme environments.

The general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics are seemingly incompatible, yet they function together in our universe synchronously, the former at large scales and the latter at nuclear scales. The place where they are most profoundly correlated is in these extreme environments, and so any attempt at unification would require a complete understanding of highly curved spacetime around, and indeed inside black holes; be they small, medium-sized, supermassive or ultra-massive black holes. Such environments also include quasars as well, but again we understand black holes reside in their centre, as they do in the centres of nearly all galaxies. One of the most mysterious paradoxes in the general theory of relativity is gravitational time dilation. The curvature of spacetime near the event horizon of a black hole, providing the black hole is suitably massive enough; then, to a distant observer such as ourselves, time has dilated to the point of being frozen or stopped. Hence, it will take an infinite amount of time, for us as a distant observer, to see anything past the event horizon. However, to a local observer, time proceeds normally with no dilation. However, as the infalling observer looks back at the universe they will see its motion speed up. This anomaly is one of the most perplexing paradoxes in physics, surpassing any phenomena in quantum mechanics.

Moreover, gravitation time dilation near such extreme environments beckons questions that need lucid answers. How can such black hole accrete into the massive spacetime anomalies, relative to a distant observer, if we can never see their continued formation, for causality require them to form before they exist? In this paper, I will revise the basic development of our understanding of black holes generally and also a sensible understanding of the time dilation near or at the event horizon.

Continued later…